DIALOGUE WITH A GIAXT 191 should it mean that ? What conceivable reason is there to suppose that the gift of nationality is going to be an economic liability ? A sovereign nation of a hundred million people—even if they are not immediately self-supporting and even if they are industrially backward__is hardly likely to be in a worse economic position than if its members are scattered and disorganized, under the dominance of two hundred and fifty million Hindus whose one idea is to exploit them. How any European can get up and say that Pakistan is 'economically impossible' after the Treaty of Versailles is really beyond my comprehension. The great brains who cut Europe into a ridiculous patchwork of conflicting and artificial boundaries are hardly the people to talk economics to us, particularly as our problem happens to be far simpler, SELF And does that also apply to defence ? JIXNAH Of course it applies to defence. Once again I will ask you a question. How is Afghanistan defended ? Well ? The answer is not very complicated. By the Afghans. Just that. We are a brave and united people who are prepared to work and, if neces- sary, fight. So how does the question of defence present any peculiar* difficulties ? In what way do we differ from other nations ? Prom Iran, for example ? Obviously, there will have to be a transition period. We are not asking the British to quit India overnight. The British have helped to make this gigantic muddle, and they must stay and help to clear it up. But before they can do that,' they will*have to do a lot of hard thinking. And that reminds me—I have something I would like to show you. He excused himself and left the room. I lit a cigarette and waited. And suddenly I realized that something very remarkable was happening, or rather was not happening. I was not I^iiig my temper. Jinnah had been almost brutally critical of British policy (though I have not quoted his remarks in the above dialo*ue), but his criticism had been clear and creative. It was not merely a medley of wild words, a hotchpotch of hatred and hallucination, in the Hindu manner. It was more like a diagnosis. Tne difference Between, Jinnah and the typical Hindu politician was the differ- ence between a surgeon and a witch doctor. Moreover, he was & surgeon you could trust, even though his verdict was harsh.